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Hot Paper More»   
The next detectors for gravitational wave astronomy
BLAIR David, JU Li, ZHAO ChunNong, WEN LinQing, MIAO HaiXing, CAI RongGen, GAO JiangRui, LIN XueChun, LIU Dong, WU Ling-An, ZHU ZongHong, HAMMOND Giles, PAIK Ho Jung, FAFONE Viviana, ROCCHI Alessio, BLAIR Carl, MA YiQiu, QIN JiaYi, PAGE Michael
SCIENCE CHINA Physics, Mechanics & Astronomy, 2015, 58(12): 120405
Non-destructive detection of pigments in oil painting by using terahertz tomography
ZHANG ZhenWei, WANG KeJia, LEI Yong, ZHANG ZhuoYong, ZHAO YuanMeng, LI ChenYu, GU An, SHI NingChang, ZHAO Kun, ZHAN HongLei, ZHANG CunLin
SCIENCE CHINA Physics, Mechanics & Astronomy, 2015, 58(12): 124202
On the instability of offshore foundations: theory and mechanism
GAO FuPing, LI JinHui, QI WenGang, HU Cun
SCIENCE CHINA Physics, Mechanics & Astronomy, 2015, 58(12): 124701
Theory, experiment and applications of metamaterials
TANG WenXuan, MEI ZhongLei, CUI TieJun
SCIENCE CHINA Physics, Mechanics & Astronomy, 2015, 58(12): 127001
 
 
SCIENCE CHINA Physics, Mechanics & Astronomy
2015, Vol. 58, No. 12
Online Publication Date: 03 November 2015

This issue publishes the special topic of the Next Detectors for Gravitational Wave Astronomy at the centenary of Einstein’s General Theory of Relativity. Inertial sensing which underpinned Zhang Heng’s first seismometer, built in 132AD, today underpins the search for gravitational waves with the Advanced LIGO detectors that began operation in 2015. Gravitational waves were predicted by Einstein’s theory, which also predicts the existence of black holes, and predicts that enormous amounts of energy equal to several percent of rest mass energy, will be emitted in the form of gravitational waves when pairs of black holes coalesce. The strongest predicted sources of detectable gravitational waves are from coalescing pairs of binary black holes or neutron stars. The cover image includes Einstein and the 4 km arm length Advanced LIGO laser interferometer at Hanford in the USA. Gravitational waves from the coalescence of a distant pair of black holes create ripples in spacetime that impinge on the detector. Zhang Heng’s seismometer used a single inertial test mass. Gravitational wave detectors detect differential accelerations between widely spaced test masses.


 
   
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Article | Quantum Physics

FPGA based digital phase-coding quantum key distribution system

LU XiaoMing, Zhang LiJun, WANG YongGang, CHEN Wei, HUANG DaJun, LI Deng, WANG Shuang, HE DeYong, YIN ZhenQiang, ZHOU Yu, HUI Cong, HAN ZhengFu
SCIENCE CHINA Physics, Mechanics & Astronomy, 2015, 58(12): 120301 | doi:10.1007/s11433-015-5742-z
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Quantum key distribution (QKD) is a technology with the potential capability to achieve information-theoretic security. Phasecoding is an important approach to develop practical QKD systems in fiber channel. In order to improve the phase-coding modulation rate, we proposed a new digital-modulation method in this paper and constructed a compact and robust prototype of QKD system using currently available components in our lab to demonstrate the effectiveness of the method. The system was deployed in laboratory environment over a 50 km fiber and continuously operated during 87 h without manual interaction. The quantum bit error rate (QBER) of the system was stable with an average value of 3.22% and the secure key generation rate is 8.91 kbps. Although the modulation rate of the photon in the demo system was only 200 MHz, which was limited by the Faraday- Michelson interferometer (FMI) structure, the proposed method and the field programmable gate array (FPGA) based electronics scheme have a great potential for high speed QKD systems with Giga-bits/second modulation rate.

Show PACS: 03.67.Hk;03.67.Dd;07.05.Dz;07.50.Ek;07.60.Vg
Special Topic: the Next Detectors for Gravitational Wave Astronomy

Editorial

BLAIR David, JU Li, ZHU ZongHong
SCIENCE CHINA Physics, Mechanics & Astronomy, 2015, 58(12): 120401 | doi:10.1007/s11433-015-5749-5
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Special Topic: the Next Detectors for Gravitational Wave Astronomy

Gravitational wave astronomy: the current status

BLAIR David, JU Li, ZHAO ChunNong, WEN LinQing, CHU Qi, FANG Qi, CAI RongGen, GAO JiangRui, LIN XueChun, LIU Dong, WU Ling-An, ZHU ZongHong, REITZE David H., ARAI Koji, ZHANG Fan, FLAMINIO Raffaele, ZHU XingJiang, HOBBS George, MANCHESTER Richard N.
SCIENCE CHINA Physics, Mechanics & Astronomy, 2015, 58(12): 120402 | doi:10.1007/s11433-015-5748-6
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In the centenary year of Einstein's General Theory of Relativity, this paper reviews the current status of gravitational wave astronomy across a spectrum which stretches from attohertz to kilohertz frequencies. Sect. 1 of this paper reviews the historical development of gravitational wave astronomy from Einstein's first prediction to our current understanding the spectrum. It is shown that detection of signals in the audio frequency spectrum can be expected very soon, and that a north-south pair of next generation detectors would provide large scientific benefits. Sect. 2 reviews the theory of gravitational waves and the principles of detection using laser interferometry. The state of the art Advanced LIGO detectors are then described. These detectors have a high chance of detecting the first events in the near future. Sect. 3 reviews the KAGRA detector currently under development in Japan, which will be the first laser interferometer detector to use cryogenic test masses. Sect. 4 of this paper reviews gravitational wave detection in the nanohertz frequency band using the technique of pulsar timing. Sect. 5 reviews the status of gravitational wave detection in the attohertz frequency band, detectable in the polarisation of the cosmic microwave background, and discusses the prospects for detection of primordial waves from the big bang. The techniques described in sects. 1-5 have already placed significant limits on the strength of gravitational wave sources. Sects. 6 and 7 review ambitious plans for future space based gravitational wave detectors in the millihertz frequency band. Sect. 6 presents a roadmap for development of space based gravitational wave detectors by China while sect. 7 discusses a key enabling technology for space interferometry known as time delay interferometry.

Show PACS: 04.80.Nn;07.20.Mc;05.40.-a
Special Topic: the Next Detectors for Gravitational Wave Astronomy

Gravitational wave astrophysics, data analysis and multimessenger astronomy

LEE Hyung Mok, LE BIGOT Eric-Olivier, DU ZhiHui, LIN ZhangXi, GUO XiangYu, WEN LinQing, PHUKON Khun Sang, PANDEY Vihan, BOSE Sukanta, FAN Xi-Long, HENDRY Martin
SCIENCE CHINA Physics, Mechanics & Astronomy, 2015, 58(12): 120403 | doi:10.1007/s11433-015-5740-1
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This paper reviews gravitational wave sources and their detection. One of the most exciting potential sources of gravitational waves are coalescing binary black hole systems. They can occur on all mass scales and be formed in numerous ways, many of which are not understood. They are generally invisible in electromagnetic waves, and they provide opportunities for deep investigation of Einstein's general theory of relativity. Sect. 1 of this paper considers ways that binary black holes can be created in the universe, and includes the prediction that binary black hole coalescence events are likely to be the first gravitational wave sources to be detected. The next parts of this paper address the detection of chirp waveforms from coalescence events in noisy data. Such analysis is computationally intensive. Sect. 2 reviews a new and powerful method of signal detection based on the GPUimplemented summed parallel infinite impulse response filters. Such filters are intrinsically real time alorithms, that can be used to rapidly detect and localise signals. Sect. 3 of the paper reviews the use of GPU processors for rapid searching for gravitational wave bursts that can arise from black hole births and coalescences. In sect. 4 the use of GPU processors to enable fast efficient statistical significance testing of gravitational wave event candidates is reviewed. Sect. 5 of this paper addresses the method of multimessenger astronomy where the discovery of electromagnetic counterparts of gravitational wave events can be used to identify sources, understand their nature and obtain much greater science outcomes from each identified event.

Show PACS: 04.80.Nn;07.20.Mc;05.40.-a
Special Topic: the Next Detectors for Gravitational Wave Astronomy

Technology for the next gravitational wave detectors

MITROFANOV Valery P., CHAO Shiuh, PAN Huang-Wei, KUO Ling-Chi, COLE Garrett, DEGALLAIX Jerome, WILLKE Benno
SCIENCE CHINA Physics, Mechanics & Astronomy, 2015, 58(12): 120404 | doi:10.1007/s11433-015-5738-8
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This paper reviews some of the key enabling technologies for advanced and future laser interferometer gravitational wave detectors, which must combine test masses with the lowest possible optical and acoustic losses, with high stability lasers and various techniques for suppressing noise. Sect. 1 of this paper presents a review of the acoustic properties of test masses. Sect. 2 reviews the technology of the amorphous dielectric coatings which are currently universally used for the mirrors in advanced laser interferometers, but for which lower acoustic loss would be very advantageous. In sect. 3 a new generation of crystalline optical coatings that offer a substantial reduction in thermal noise is reviewed. The optical properties of test masses are reviewed in sect. 4, with special focus on the properties of silicon, an important candidate material for future detectors. Sect. 5 of this paper presents the very low noise, high stability laser technology that underpins all advanced and next generation laser interferometers.

Show PACS: 04.80.Nn;07.20.Mc;05.40.-a
Special Topic: the Next Detectors for Gravitational Wave Astronomy

The next detectors for gravitational wave astronomy Hot!

BLAIR David, JU Li, ZHAO ChunNong, WEN LinQing, MIAO HaiXing, CAI RongGen, GAO JiangRui, LIN XueChun, LIU Dong, WU Ling-An, ZHU ZongHong, HAMMOND Giles, PAIK Ho Jung, FAFONE Viviana, ROCCHI Alessio, BLAIR Carl, MA YiQiu, QIN JiaYi, PAGE Michael
SCIENCE CHINA Physics, Mechanics & Astronomy, 2015, 58(12): 120405 | doi:10.1007/s11433-015-5747-7
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This paper focuses on the next detectors for gravitational wave astronomy which will be required after the current ground based detectors have completed their initial observations, and probably achieved the first direct detection of gravitational waves. The next detectors will need to have greater sensitivity, while also enabling the world array of detectors to have improved angular resolution to allow localisation of signal sources. Sect. 1 of this paper begins by reviewing proposals for the next ground based detectors, and presents an analysis of the sensitivity of an 8 km armlength detector, which is proposed as a safe and cost-effective means to attain a 4-fold improvement in sensitivity. The scientific benefits of creating a pair of such detectors in China and Australia is emphasised. Sect. 2 of this paper discusses the high performance suspension systems for test masses that will be an essential component for future detectors, while sect. 3 discusses solutions to the problem of Newtonian noise which arise from fluctuations in gravity gradient forces acting on test masses. Such gravitational perturbations cannot be shielded, and set limits to low frequency sensitivity unless measured and suppressed. Sects. 4 and 5 address critical operational technologies that will be ongoing issues in future detectors. Sect. 4 addresses the design of thermal compensation systems needed in all high optical power interferometers operating at room temperature. Parametric instability control is addressed in sect. 5. Only recently proven to occur in Advanced LIGO, parametric instability phenomenon brings both risks and opportunities for future detectors. The path to future enhancements of detectors will come from quantum measurement technologies. Sect. 6 focuses on the use of optomechanical devices for obtaining enhanced sensitivity, while sect. 7 reviews a range of quantum measurement options.

Show PACS: 04.80.Nn;07.20.Mc;05.40.-a
Article | Optics

Spontaneous emission rate and optical amplification of Er3+ in double slot waveguide

WANG XingJun, JIANG LingJun, GUO RuiMin, YE Rui, ZHOU ZhiPing
SCIENCE CHINA Physics, Mechanics & Astronomy, 2015, 58(12): 124201 | doi:10.1007/s11433-015-5743-y
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The spontaneous emission (SE) of Er3+ embedded in a double slot dielectric structure was studied by a quantum-electrody- namical formalism. The study shows that the slot width and the position of Er3+ in slot structure have a significant effect on the SE. The double slot waveguides were fabricated by embedding two low-index Er/Yb silicate material layers into high-index silicon. The radiative efficiency of Er3+ in the double slot waveguides is found to be higher than that of the single slot waveguide, which is consistent with the theory simulation. The 0.67 dB signal enhancement at 1.53 mm in a 4.6-mm-long slot waveguide was observed pumped by 1476 nm laser. These results show the relevance of our model to study the SE processes in multilayer structures and are important for future realization of silicon-compatible active optical devices.

Show PACS: 78.55.-m;68.55.-a;78.67.Pt
Letter to the Editor | Optics

Non-destructive detection of pigments in oil painting by using terahertz tomography Hot!

ZHANG ZhenWei, WANG KeJia, LEI Yong, ZHANG ZhuoYong, ZHAO YuanMeng, LI ChenYu, GU An, SHI NingChang, ZHAO Kun, ZHAN HongLei, ZHANG CunLin
SCIENCE CHINA Physics, Mechanics & Astronomy, 2015, 58(12): 124202 | doi:10.1007/s11433-015-5744-x
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Invited Review | Fluid Dynamics

On the instability of offshore foundations: theory and mechanism Hot!

GAO FuPing, LI JinHui, QI WenGang, HU Cun
SCIENCE CHINA Physics, Mechanics & Astronomy, 2015, 58(12): 124701 | doi:10.1007/s11433-015-5745-9
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As the offshore engineering moving from shallow to deep waters, the foundation types for fixed and floating platforms have been gradually evolving to minimize engineering costs and structural risks in the harsh offshore environments. Particular focus of this paper is on the foundation instability and its failure mechanisms as well as the relevant theory advances for the prevailing foundation types in both shallow and deep water depths. Piles, spudcans, gravity bases, suction caissons, and plate anchors are detailed in this paper. The failure phenomena and mechanisms for each type of foundations are identified and summarized, respectively. The theoretical approaches along with sophisticated empirical solutions for the bearing capacity problems are then presented. The major challenges are from flow-structure-soil coupling processes, rigorous constitutive modeling of cyclic behaviors of marine sediments, and the spatial variability of soil properties for large-spreading structures. Further researches are suggested to reveal the instability mechanisms for underpinning the evolution of offshore foundations.

Show PACS: 81.05.Rm;46.70.Lk;91.50.Jc;62.20.Fe
Article | Fluid Dynamics

Investigation of non-premixed flame combustion characters in GO2/GH2 shear coaxial injectors using non-intrusive optical diagnostics

DAI Jian, YU NanJia, CAI GuoBiao
SCIENCE CHINA Physics, Mechanics & Astronomy, 2015, 58(12): 124702 | doi:10.1007/s11433-015-5739-7
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Single-element combustor experiments are conducted for three shear coaxial geometry configuration injectors by using gaseous oxygen and gaseous hydrogen (GO2/GH2) as propellants. During the combustion process, several spatially and time- resolved non-intrusive optical techniques, such as OH planar laser induced fluorescence (PLIF), high speed imaging, and infrared imaging, are simultaneously employed to observe the OH radical concentration distribution, flame fluctuations, and temperature fields. The results demonstrate that the turbulent flow phenomenon of non-premixed flame exhibits a remarkable periodicity, and the mixing ratio becomes a crucial factor to influence the combustion flame length. The high speed and infrared images have a consistent temperature field trend. As for the OH-PLIF images, an intuitionistic local flame structure is revealed by single-shot instantaneous images. Furthermore, the means and standard deviations of OH radical intensity are acquired to provide statistical information regarding the flame, which may be helpful for validation of numerical simulations in future. Parameters of structure configurations, such as impinging angle and oxygen post thickness, play an important role in the reaction zone distribution. Based on a successful flame contour extraction method assembled with non-linear anisotropic diffusive filtering and variational level-set, it is possible to implement a fractal analysis to describe the fractal characteristics of the non-premixed flame contour. As a result, the flame front cannot be regarded as a fractal object. However, this turbulent process presents a self-similarity characteristic.

Show PACS: 47.70.Pq;47.80.Jk;42.30.Va;47.53.+n
Article

Energy convergence effect and jet phenomenon of shock-heavy spherical bubble interaction

ZOU LiYong, ZHAI ZhiGang, LIU JinHong, WANG YanPing, LIU CangLi
SCIENCE CHINA Physics, Mechanics & Astronomy, 2015, 58(12): 124703 | doi:10.1007/s11433-015-5697-0
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We present computational results on the evolution of the shock-accelerated heavy bubbles surrounded by nitrogen with the Atwood number At = 0.497-0.677 and the emphasis is on the jet phenomenon caused by the shock focusing. The multi-fluid Eulerian equation is solved by a finite volume method based on MUSCL-Hancock approach. Based on the numerical schlieren and the distributions of density and pressure, it is found that there are three typical jet structures (outward jet, no jet, inward jet) for different combinations of gas mixture inside the bubble which determine the position of shock focusing relative to the downstream pole of the heavy bubble (upstream of the pole, at the pole, downstream the pole). Compared with the inward jet, the velocity of outward jet is obviously larger. As At increases, the moment of jet formation is postponed, and the maximal values and magnifications of pressure and density increase distinctly. Therefore, the energy convergence effects are heavily enhanced with the increase of bubble gas density.

Show PACS: 47.20.-k;47.20.Ma;47.40.Nm
Letter to the Editor | Condensed Matter Physics

Graphene/N-doped amorphous carbon sheet for hydrogen evolution

ZHAO Yang, YAN Feng, YU XianBo, LI ChunYan, ZHU ChunLing, CHEN YuJin
SCIENCE CHINA Physics, Mechanics & Astronomy, 2015, 58(12): 126801 | doi:10.1007/s11433-015-5737-9
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Review | Condensed Matter Physics

Theory, experiment and applications of metamaterials Hot!

TANG WenXuan, MEI ZhongLei, CUI TieJun
SCIENCE CHINA Physics, Mechanics & Astronomy, 2015, 58(12): 127001 | doi:10.1007/s11433-015-5746-8
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In this review article, a brief introduction on the theory, experiments and applications of metamaterials is presented. The main focuses are concentrated on the composing meta-atoms, the method of transformation optics, the experimental demonstration of negative refraction, and the realizations of invisibility cloaks and electromagnetic black hole. At the end of this review, some typical applications of metamaterials, including high-performance antennas made of zero-refractive-index materials, inhomogeneous metamaterial lenses, and planar metasurfaces, are introduced in details.

Show PACS: 41.20.-q;41.20.Jb;84.40.-x;81.05.Zx
Article | Quantum Physics

Transient mode competition in directly modulated DFB semiconductor laser

XIAO RuLei, SHI YueChun, ZHENG JiLin, ZHANG YunShan, ZHENG JunShou, CHEN XiangFei
SCIENCE CHINA Physics, Mechanics & Astronomy, 2015, 58(12): 127301 | doi:10.1007/s11433-015-5741-0
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A new effect of transient mode competition in directly modulated DFB laser based on equivalent phase-shift (EPS) technique is presented and studied. Since there are multi-order reflections in EPS structure and if the 0th order subgrating is properly designed, the transient lasing of 0th order will occur during the rising time of the injection current. As a result, transient mode competition between -1st order (main mode) and 0th order will occur accordingly. This can consume redundant carrier and suppress the transient relaxation oscillation, which may be applied in some areas like on-off switching modulation of DFB semiconductor lasers. As an example, an equivalent p phase shift (π-EPS) is carefully designed to realize the effect. In such a laser the 0th order wavelength is in the margin of the material gain region and the -1st order wavelength is around the gain peak, while the stable single longitudinal mode (SLM) operation of the -1st order is guaranteed. The simulation investigation is performed. Good results with suppressed relaxation oscillation and 1.25 Gb/s directly on-off modulation (32 dB extinction ratio) are demonstrated. We believe it provides a new kind of method for on-off switching with high extinction ratio and weak relaxation oscillation.

Show PACS: 42.55.Px;42.60.Mi;42.60.Rn
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